Animal liberation

Animal liberation conference

My concern is not with breaking the law, as such. Since justice demands only that we treat equals equally, unequal treatment of humans and nonhumans cannot be an injustice. In other words, the interests of every being affected by an action are to be taken into account and given the same weight as the like interests of any other being. People sometimes think that all this experimentation is for vital medical purposes, and so will reduce suffering overall. I do not believe that illegal actions are always morally wrong. His writing on speciesism reminded me of a news story here in Texas a few years ago. The traditional animal welfare organisations concentrate on trying to stop cruelty to animals of those species to which we most easily relate. Singer then read Ruth Harrison 's book, Animal Machines, as well as a paper by Roslind Godlovitch who would later co-edit Animals, Men and Morals , which convinced him to become a vegetarian and to take animal suffering seriously as a philosophical issue. This is why the limit of sentience using the term as a convenient, if not strictly accurate, shorthand for the capacity to suffer or experience enjoyment or happiness is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. What are the ideas behind the animal liberation movement, and where is it heading? There was a news story with a crying teenage girl.

These are standard tests in commercial laboratories. This interpretation was accepted by Thomas Aquinas, who stated that the only possible objection to cruelty to animals was that it might lead to cruelty to humans - according to Aquinas there was nothing wrong in itself with making animals suffer.

Animal liberation peter singer quotes

Yet these differences do not all point to greater suffering on the part of the normal human being. Like it or not, we must face the fact that humans come in different shapes and sizes; they come with differing moral capacities, differing intellectual abilities, differing amounts of benevolent feeling and sensitivity to the needs of others, differing abilities to communicate effectively, and different capacities to experience pleasure and pain. Shelves: animal-rights Animal Liberation is the book that started the modern animal rights movement. The struggle to extend the sphere of moral concern to non-human animals may be even harder and longer, but if it is pursued with the same determination and moral resolve, it will surely also succeed. They showed the experimenters joking as they handled the baboons roughly, calling them "sucker" and using other mocking language. This is why the limit of sentience using the term as a convenient, if not strictly accurate, shorthand for the capacity to suffer or experience enjoyment or happiness is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. Animal liberation today In the past few years the animal liberation movement has made unprecedented gains. Experimental animals - tools for research Speciesism can be seen in the widespread practice of experimenting on other species in order to see if certain substances are safe for human beings, or to test some psychological theory about the effects of severe punishment on learning, or to try out various new compounds just in case something turns up. In Britain a House of Commons Agriculture Committee has recommended that cages for laying hens be phased out.

Feeds the hungry, without exploiting animals. We have made progress from Roman times, but it is slow and suffers many setbacks. Today meat comes in white styrofoam packaging with pads underneath to absorb any excess blood. Equal consideration of interests If the case for animal equality is sound, what follows from it?

A utilitarian defense of animal liberation summary

Like it or not, we must face the fact that humans come in different shapes and sizes; they come with differing moral capacities, differing intellectual abilities, differing amounts of benevolent feeling and sensitivity to the needs of others, differing abilities to communicate effectively, and different capacities to experience pleasure and pain. Next come those wild animals that we find attractive especially baby seals, with their big brown eyes and soft white coats, the mysterious whales and the playful dolphins. Some activists are even going beyond actions directed at releasing animals or documenting cruelty. In a lengthy debate in Slate Magazine , Richard Posner wrote that Singer failed to see the "radicalism of the ethical vision that powers [his] view on animals, an ethical vision that finds greater value in a healthy pig than in a profoundly intellectually challenged child, that commands inflicting a lesser pain on a human being to avert a greater pain to a dog, and that, provided only that a chimpanzee has 1 percent of the mental ability of a normal human being, would require the sacrifice of the human being to save chimpanzees. Then you have found out the dose that is lethal for 50 per cent of your sample. Moreover the conditions in the laboratory were filthy, and when the monkeys inflicted wounds on themselves, they were not given veterinary attention. Racists violate the principle of equality by giving greater weight to the interests of members of their own race, when there is a clash between their interests and the interests of those of another race. The group had never been heard of before, has never been heard of since, and may not have been a genuine animal rights organization at all. If, for instance, we decided to perform extremely painful or lethal scientific experiments on normal adult humans, kidnapped at random from public parks for this purpose, every adult who entered a park would become fearful that he or she would be kidnapped. Therefore, intelligence does not provide a basis for giving nonhuman animals any less consideration than such intellectually challenged humans. She thought it wasn't right, even though she sold the horse as one would sell a piece of property. Although Singer rejects rights as a moral concept independent from his utilitarianism based on interests, he accepts rights as derived from utilitarian principles, particularly the principle of minimizing suffering. It may be objected that comparisons of sufferings of different species are impossible to make, and that for this reason when the interests of animals and human beings clash the principle of equality gives no guidance. Goals of the movement Now that we have looked at the philosophy behind the animal liberation movement, we can turn to the movement's aims.

As a result a vast amount of suffering would be avoided. This is why the limit of sentience using the term as a convenient, if not strictly accurate, shorthand for the capacity to suffer or experience enjoyment or happiness is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others.

Is direct action effective as a tactic? Publishes The Vegetarian. Personal background[ edit ] In an essay entitled "Animal Liberation: A Personal View", Singer describes the personal background that led to his adoption of the views he sets out in Animal Liberation.

To guard every factory farm would be even more expensive.

animal liberation full text

When I wrote it, I really thought the book would change the world. No wonder that some of those who experiment on animals, or raise them for food, hope that animal liberation will just prove to be a passing fad.

Animal liberation definition

After much protest, a sit-in at the offices of the National Institutes of Health, the government body which had funded the experiments, led to a dramatic victory: the United States Secretary for Health and Human Services announced that there was evidence of "material failure" to comply with guidelines for the use of animals, and funding to the laboratory was suspended. The same experiments performed on nonhuman animals would cause less suffering since the animals would not have the anticipatory dread of being kidnapped and experimented upon. They have sought - absurd as it must sound as first - to extend such notions as equality and rights to nonhuman animals. Publishes The Vegan. It must not abandon the high moral ground. In general, though, the question of when it is wrong to kill painlessly an animal is one to which we need give no precise answer. Yet the step was a restricted one, because it did not challenge our right to make whatever use we choose of other species. Sometimes animals may suffer more because of their more limited understanding. People oppose wearing fur, but at the same time see no problem with leather. In other words, the interests of every being affected by an action are to be taken into account and given the same weight as the like interests of any other being. He holds the interests of all beings capable of suffering to be worthy of equal consideration and that giving lesser consideration to beings based on their species is no more justified than discrimination based on skin color. ISBN 0 02 9. It is an informative read, but not one that gives comfort or pleasure. Let us look at these two areas a little more closely. For example, Revlon is no longer testing beauty products on animals and factory farming grown at an incredible pace.
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Animal Liberation