13th and 14th century motets
These were short sections of organuma 13th-century and earlier form consisting of a plainchant melody in the tenor, above which were added one, two, or three simultaneous melodies; in descant clausulae, as opposed to other organum, all the voice parts were set in short, repeated rhythmic patterns called rhythmic modes.
What do the motets of all three periods have in common? However, the texts can now be in French as well as in Latin.
Instead, the Renaissance motet is a polyphonic musical setting, sometimes in imitative counterpoint, for chorus, of a Latin text, usually sacred, not specifically connected to the liturgy of a given day, and therefore suitable for use in any service. These motets typically set a Latin text in praise of a monarch, commemorating some public triumph, or even praising music itself. The notational innovations of the Ars Nova allow for as many as 9 notes Minims in a measure. However, the texts can now be in French as well as in Latin. The borrowed melody in the Tenor is organized in some sort of repeatable rhythmic pattern. In forming motets from descant clausulae, two or even three parts were each given a text. After the end of the Baroque era in the midth century, the motet became a less prominent form. First additional texts were paraphrases of the original text of the tenor. The music of the mass might also be founded on the same musical themes, giving the entire service a musical unity not approached in any later church music , even under J. At this stage the text is in Latin, an sometimes makes direct reference to the word of the original chant melisma like "Domino".
Secular non-religious motets continued to be written, however. Although the earliest motets were usually in Latin and intended for church use, there later arose bilingual motets French—Latin, English—Latin on secular and sacred texts or combinations of both.
Tenors were sometimes chosen from French popular songs, rather than from plainchant. It is difficult to separate the Motet of those times from other contemporary polyphonic hymns.
Motet vs mass
Many secular motets are known as "ceremonial motets". These are called "free motets. The relationship between the two forms is most obvious in the composers who concentrated on sacred music, especially Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina , whose "motets" setting texts from the Canticum Canticorum , the biblical "Song of Solomon", are among the most lush and madrigal-like of Palestrina's compositions, while his "madrigals" that set poems of Petrarch in praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary would not be out of place in church. Soon, motets cease to be based on pre-existent pieces and are newly written, yet keeping the same principals of composition: Tenor drawn from a chant melisma arranged in repeatable rhythmic patterns, new musical line written above it and moving at about the same speed. The Tenor is still drawn mostly from chant and is still organized in repeatable rhythmic patterns, but these are different from the types of patterns used in the preceding centuries, and uses instead the techniques of isorhythm. This pattern often overlapped but did not always coincide with the repetition of a melody. The Tenor is still being organized in repeatable rhythmic cells, but these are becoming harder to distinguish because the Tenor is slowing down. Medieval motet circa According to Willi Apel, motet was invented during 13th century. They were either for chorus full anthems or for soloist s and chorus verse anthems. Motet's history can be divided into three periods.
Such motets were often based on plainchants associated with their texts. The use of cantus firmus plainchant declined during the 16th century.
In the late 16th century, Venetian composers such as Giovanni Gabrieli wrote motets for multiple choirs and contrasting instruments. The musical texture was largely contrapuntal i. Those they do write operate under somewhat the same principles as the motets written by French composers.
The tenor melodies were largely chosen from plainchant, and sacred Latin texts predominated.
based on 27 review